- German Films in the Department • German Colorado College
- Erzählt in alten Tagen: Predigten der Reihe nach (German Edition)
- Nationalist, Colonialist and Anti-Semitic Discourse 1871–1918
- German to English translator specializing in poetry and literature from late 's to 's.
- Wikipedia:Hauptseite/Schon gewusst/Zeittafel
This means that these families could not be traced directly to German, Swiss, Scotch, Irish, English, or Welsh origin from the data at hand.
German Films in the Department • German Colorado College
It is a striking fact that relatively few had personal knowledge, or even tradition of their origin. Compare, for example in the borough , the male heads of families, and female, whose origin the census-taker determined to be German, with the 28 families and 38 individuals wdio knew that they were of German origin.
This disparity shows a number of interesting facts, i How completely the early German settlers severed their tradition from the Fatherland. The desire on the part of the masses to live an obscure, uneventful life, and the tendency to conceal their German origin in the case of those who came into touch with An American Ethnographical Survey 45 public affairs, doubtless added to this indifference concerning their origin.
The statistics show a surprising variety of trades and occupations, even in this isolated country district, and give a good impression of the complex character of even simple country life. It will be seen that about one-sixth of the residents of the borough is made up of farmers, not all of whom are retired farmers. We have here, doubtless, an instructive survival of the South German village life, for a number of these farmers in, the borough still carry on their farms in the town- ship, after the fashion of the South German peasant; except that in the case of Strasburg, the farms are vastly larger.
As might be expected, many trades are confined to the borough.
Erzählt in alten Tagen: Predigten der Reihe nach (German Edition)
Never- theless, the township is well supplied with such artisans as car- penters, shoemakers and blacksmiths. There was an unmis- takable trace here of the German tradition of passing on the trade from one generation to the next, in the same family. The large number of children, however, made it necessary to take up other occupations. One of the most notable of these "hereditary" occupations is to be found in the case of a family which has for generations been noted for the best doctors in the country. Religious Status. It is a most interesting fact that the Borough of Strasburg shows a close contest in point of numbers between the Old and New Mennonites on the one hand, and the Methodists and Presbyterians on the other.
The Presbyterian influence is only such as can be easily explained by the presence of the Scotch Irish in the locality. The Methodists, however, have made actual conquest, taking over a number of members from original Mennonite families, it being a natural step from the tenets of the Mennonites to the beliefs of the Methodists, when once the plain dress and conservative Mennonite ways have been given up.
The Mennonites were originally the dominant element in this locality, but their combined influence has been weakened by the organization of the New Mennonite Church, It will be 46 An American Ethnographical Survey noted, however, that the Old Mennonites are still strong in the borough, even in this township, which represents a variety of otlier religious elements. One of the most interesting things in the appearance of the country people of Lancaster County is their plain dress, which exhibits three different types; the Mennonite type, the still more primitive Amish type, and the Dunker type.
In point of dress the borough is much less conservative than the township, having 7,y adherents of plain dress as compared with 96 in the township. Is is to be noted, however, that many families, par- ticularly the female members, wear the plain dress, without being actual members of a plain sect.
Indeed, a family misfortune is likely to force them from worldly habiliments into the churchly plain garb. It should not be concluded, however, that "plain" is synonomous with unattractive, for in the case of the young Mennonite maiden the Mennonite dress is highly becoming, and most attractive, allowing of a wide variety of color, and ma- terial, the "plainness" being confined to the pattern of the gar- ments. Even among the "hook and eye" Amish, the young folks indulge in gay colors, thus relieving the monotonous ex- ternals of their patriarched life.
The full extent of the persistence of super- stition will appear in a separate treatise soon to be published by a member of the expedition. We only note here two or three of the most general forms of superstition.
Nationalist, Colonialist and Anti-Semitic Discourse 1871–1918
A considerable number of people still believe in the signs of the moon, and observe them in planting, sowing, butchering, and the like. As the statistics show, however, the percentage is relatively small, although on this point the answers are less trustworthy.
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The most interesting survival of old super- stitious folk customs is doubtless that of powwowing, called in Pennsylvania, German "Brauche. As will be seen from the statistics, eight powwowers were found in the Borough of Strasburg alone, and four in the township, making a round dozen, one powwower to fifty families.
Two kinds of pow- wowing were noted. Why she bestowed this particular name upon me I have no idea. Perhaps it had something to do with the great British sea captain Lord Nelson, but that would be only a guess.
German to English translator specializing in poetry and literature from late 's to 's.
My later notions of leadership were profoundly influenced by observing the regent and his court. I watched and learned from the tribal meetings that were regularly held at the Great Place. These were not scheduled, but were called as needed, and were held to discuss national matters such as a drought, the culling of cattle, policies ordered by the magistrate, or new laws decreed by the government.
All Thembus were free to come — and a great many did, on horseback or by foot. They were wise men who retained the knowledge of tribal history and custom in their heads and whose opinions carried great weight. Letters advising these chiefs and headmen of a meeting were dispatched from the regent, and soon the Great Place became alive with important visitors and travelers from all over Thembuland. From that point on, he would not utter another word until the meeting was nearing its end.
Everyone who wanted to speak did so. It was democracy in its purest form. There may have been a hierarchy of importance among the speakers, but everyone was heard, chief and subject, warrior and medicine man, shopkeeper and farmer, landowner and laborer. People spoke without interruption and the meetings lasted for many hours.
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The foundation of self-government was that all men were free to voice their opinions and equal in their value as citizens. Women, I am afraid, were deemed second-class citizens. A great banquet was served during the day, and I often gave myself a bellyache by eating too much while listening to speaker after speaker. I noticed how some speakers rambled and never seemed to get to the point.
I grasped how others came to the matter at hand directly, and who made a set of arguments succinctly and cogently. I observed how some speakers used emotion and dramatic language, and tried to move the audience with such techniques, while other speakers were sober and even, and shunned emotion. At first, I was astonished by the vehemence — and candor — with which people criticized the regent.
He was not above criticism — in fact, he was often the principal target of it. But no matter how flagrant the charge, the regent simply listened, not defending himself, showing no emotion at all. The meetings would continue until some kind of consensus was reached. They ended in unanimity or not at all. Unanimity, however, might be an agreement to disagree, to wait for a more propitious time to propose a solution.
Democracy meant all men were to be heard, and a decision was taken together as a people. Majority rule was a foreign notion. A minority was not to be crushed by a majority. Only at the end of the meeting, as the sun was setting, would the regent speak. His purpose was to sum up what had been said and form some consensus among the diverse opinions.
But no conclusion was forced on people who disagreed. If no agreement could be reached, another meeting would be held. At the very end of the council, a praise-singer or poet would deliver a panegyric to the ancient kings, and a mixture of compliments to and satire on the present chiefs, and the audience, led by the regent, would roar with laughter.
As a leader, I have always followed the principles I first saw demonstrated by the regent at the Great Place. I have always endeavored to listen to what each and every person in a discussion had to say before venturing my own opinion.
Oftentimes, my own opinion will simply represent a consensus of what I heard in the discussion. He stays behind the flock, letting the most nimble go out ahead, whereupon the others follow, not realizing that all along they are being directed from behind. It was at Mqhekezweni that I developed my interest in African history.
I learned of these men from the chiefs and headmen who came to the Great Place to settle disputes and try cases. Though not lawyers, these men presented cases and then adjudicated them. Some days, they would finish early and sit around telling stories. I hovered silently and listened. Their speech was formal and lofty, their manner slow and unhurried, and the traditional clicks of our language were long and dramatic. At first, they shooed me away and told me I was too young to listen.